The question of time and place of emergence of an astrology is difficult, as it is not enough authentic data on early stages of formation of astrological doctrines.
Some researchers refer astrology emergence to the period of a mustyersky era (about 40-100 thousand years ago) when there were fixings of the elementary supervision over Sun movement, and also initial skills of the account and geometry in the different regions of Eurasia developed.
It is precisely possible to tell only that no later than the last centuries of the III millennium BC in Mesopotamia the astrology of omens was already known: at this time systematic astronomical supervision, and to the separate phenomena, such as emergence of comets, solar and lunar eclipses, etc. were conducted, astrological, predictive significance was attached. The klinopisny text "Enuma Ana Enlil" testifies to it found in 1847 in Nineveh palace library of Assyrian tsar Ashshurbanapal. However almost prior to the beginning of a new era the astrology remained mundanny and was engaged in a prediction of events of only state scale; the idea of an individual horoscope was not familiar to vavilono-Assyrian astrologers.
Emergence of the first individual horoscopes date about V-IV centuries BC. Most ancient treat this period of reached up to now personal horoscopes. Possibly, emergence of the concept of an individual horoscope was caused by merge entered to the IV century BC in the use of the 12th sign zodiac and developing tradition of the gemerologiya reminding calendars-mesyatseslovy of lists of favorable and adverse days. As an example of such calendar the papyrus from Ancient Egypt, relating to the period of the XIX-th or XX-th dynasty (about 1200) can serve.
Finally the tradition of a horoscopal astrology developed under the influence of the Greek culture about the first century AD. In Ptolemaeus’s work of "Tetrabiblos" relating by then, principles of a classical astrology which remained almost invariable up to the latest time are stated.
After strengthening of ties between India and the Greek-Roman world in the III-V centuries AD the Greek texts containing data on a horoscopal astrology got on the East and were transferred to the Sanskrit, having begun the Indian astrological tradition. Though elements of a dogrechesky astrology got to India much earlier. No later than the middle of the I millennium BC, after Akhemenidami’s capture of northern India on the East knowledge of the Babylon astronomy and an astrology in that version which contains in texts «Apin’s Mule» (MUL.APIN) got.
Gradually ways of the Greek and Indian astrology disperse. The Indian astrologers developed the concepts unfamiliar эллинам, such as, for example, the concept of lunar houses (накшатр) and astrologies of questions (a horarny astrology). In the West the mathematical apparatus of an astrology continued to be improved: calculations became more strict, tops of houses of a horoscope were adhered to astronomical parameters of the heavenly sphere, the severity of definition of aspects between planets (in India this concept exists in the simplified form) was sustained.
Thus, by the latest time there were two related, but differing with details, traditions of a horoscopal astrology:
- Western system of an astrology;
- System of the Indian (Vedic) astrology.
Subsequently some calendar systems were carried to the astrology case because of external similarity, but strictly speaking, not being traditions of a horoscopal astrology. Similar calendar systems treat:
On the basis of a relative positioning of heavenly bodies concerning 12 zodiac signs and 12 houses of a horoscope for a certain moment of time (for example, the moment of the birth of the person) and events place on Earth (for example, the birthplace), was made a horoscope on the basis of which the astrologer took out judgment (for example, about destiny given rise). The horoscope also was made for a choice of the most successful moment of the beginning of prospective action (for example, battles, marriages), for definition of an outcome defined events and a choice of strategy of behavior, etc. the purposes.
In a modern western astrology of the XX century for creation of a horoscope, depending on concrete school to which this or that astrologer, except planets of a septener carries itself: The sun, the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, known in the ancient time, are considered the provision of Uranium, the Neptune, Pluton, some large asteroids and «fictitious points».
Effect of Mars
There is a number of statistical researches of reliability of the astrology, yielded seeming positive result. In this area Michel Goklen’s who has compared horoscopes of the birth of a large number of people with their professions works are the most known. Results of these works appeared ambiguous. The part of researches of Goklen was disproved by some provisions of an astrology. At the same time in some other researches some statistical regularities which have confirmed existence of communication of the moment of the birth of the person with his destiny were found. These researches repeated several times under the supervision of various experts and yielded identical results, however scientific community refused to recognize them, motivating it with that the received statistical deviations were not so great and at these volumes a vyborok can be called into question.